Glossary

Glossary

  • a
  • ADME-Tox in silico:
    Computational studies aimed to the prediction of the ADME-Tox properties of drugs and candidate drugs. ADME-Tox properties are the chemical and physical properties that affect the Adsorbtion, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination and Toxicology of a compound.

  • b
  • Biomarkers:
    A biomarker, or biological marker, is an indicator of a biological state. It is a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention. It is used in many scientific fields.

    MoA biomarkers:
    A biomarker related to the mechanism of action (MoA) of a drug or a candidate drug.

  • c
  • d
  • Database:
    A organized and systematic collection of data that can be accessed immediately and manipulated by a data-processing system for a specific purpose.

    Drug development:
    It is a blanket term used to define the process of bringing a new drug to the market once a lead compound has been identified through the process of drug discovery.

  • e
  • f
  • g
  • h
  • i
  • In vitro cell toxicity testing
    It is the scientific analysis of the effects of toxic chemical substances on cultured cells.

  • j
  • k
  • l
  • m
  • M/HTS:
    Medium/High-Throughput-Screening, assay's Methods with limited requirements of time and material, that are able to screen hundreds to thousands compounds for they pharmacological/biological activity.

  • n
  • Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD):
    Diseases that are endemic in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. The pharmaceutical industries are not much interested in searching new safer and more effective drugs for these diseases, although it would be an urgent and high medical need, because of whose ethiological agents are Leishmania spp, Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei, respectively.

  • o
  • Omic studies (genomic & proteomic):
    Omic disciplines study all the genes (genoma) or proteins (proteoma) or metabolites (metabolome) and so on, of a whole organism. These kind of studies are intended to give a complete view of the organism and of the modification induced in the organism by drugs or candidate drugs, by environment conditions, heritability factors, and so on.

  • p
  • PK and PD parameters:
    PK (pharmacokinetics) and PD (pharmacodynamics) parameters are the chemical physical properties of a molecule that affect its biological (pharmacodynamics: MoA, efficacy) and ADME-Tox (pharmacokinetics) profiles.

  • q
  • r
  • s
  • SOP:
    Standard Operating Procedure.

  • t
  • TDLP criteria:
    TPs (Target Profiles) are ensembles of properties that feature compounds that can pass to the next stage of drug development. These are the criteria by which most promising molecules are selected during the different stages of the drug development process, with the aim to ensure that only the best compounds are proposed for the clinical studies and to reduce the number of compound that fail during clinical phases. The Target Drug Lead Profile, is the ensemble of properties that a compound should have to be considered a drug lead and thus to pass to the next stage of drug development.

    Toxicological data:
    Data relating to the harmful (toxicological) effects of chemicals. This may include information from animal, human or non-animal (in vitro) tests.

  • u
  • v
  • w
  • x
  • ADME-Tox in silico:

  • y
  • z